Penentuan Kelembaban Tanah Optimum Untuk Budidaya Padi Sawah SRI (System Of Rice Intensification) Menggunakan Algoritma Genetika

Chusnul Arif, Budi Indra Setiawan, Masaru Mizoguchi
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Kelembaban tanah yang optimum untuk budidaya padi sawah dengan System of Rice Intensification (SRI) sangat penting dengan tujuan untuk meningkatkan produksi padi dan produktifitas air. Makalah ini mengemukakan metode optimasi dengan Algoritma Genetika untuk menentukan kelembaban tanah optimum pada masing-masing fase pertumbuhan tanaman berdasarkan data empirik selama 3 musim tanam percobaan yang dilakukan di Nusantara Organic SRI Center (NOSC), Nagrak Sukabumi, Jawa Barat. Dalam satu musim tanam, fase pertumbuhan tanaman dibagi menjadi 4 fase, yaitu : fase awal (initial), vegetatif (crop development), tengah musim (mid-season) dan akhir musim (late season). Selain itu, kelembaban tanah diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga level berdasarkan kurva retensi air, yaitu basah (wet), agak basah (medium) dan kering (dry). Dari hasil optimasi, didapatkan kelembaban tanah yang optimum adalah kombinasi level kelembaban tanah basah, basah, agak basah dan kering untuk fase pertumbuhan awal, vegetatif, tengah musim dan akhir musim. Kelembaban tanah pada level basah untuk fase awal dan vegetatif sangat penting untuk tanaman khususnya daerah perakaran dalam menyediakan air yang cukup untuk pertumbuhan akar, batang dan daun. Kemudian, air irigasi dapat dikurangi untuk menjaga kelembaban tanah pada level agak basah di fase tengah musim untuk menghindari dan mengurangi jumlah bulir yang tidak produktif. Pada fase pertumbuhan akhir musim, kelembaban tanah pada level kering dapat diterapkan untuk menghemat air irigasi ketika pada fase ini kebutuhan air tanaman minimal. Dengan kombinasi ini, dari hasil simulasi menggunakan Algoritma Genetika didapatkan peningkatan produksi sebesar 4.40% dan produktifitas air sebesar 8.40% dibandingkan data empirik dengan air yang dapat dihemat sebesar 12.28%.


Kata Kunci


algoritma genetika; irigasi tidak tergenang; produktifitas air; produktifitas lahan; System of Rice Intensification (SRI)

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Referensi


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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.31028/ji.v9.i1.29-40

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